John mainly relied on linguistic capital to endure the bias that existed against him while Lucas mainly relied on navigational capital to understand the differences in Canadian and American cultures. Both men, however, utilized resistance capital and aspirational capital to ensure their success in engineering.
There exist two major areas of bias and limitation in this case study: lack of generalizability and researcher bias. A potential lack of representation of the population can potentially occur since we the researchers only utilized two out of a total of 79 interviews. Because participants were purposefully selected, this case study cannot generalize how Black or African American students with international experience view racism at higher education institutions in the United States.
Another form of bias could have begun when the Black men were interviewed by White women. This bias could have been in the form of how the interviewers chose to phrase questions and in which order these questions were asked. Furthermore, the researchers who conducted this case study could have introduced bias to the study in their analysis of the data, approach, and methods. Being an immigrant myself I understand the point of view these students hold. Separating my opinions and experiences from the research is difficult since I am in a similar position; my experiences likely influenced my interpretations of these students’ experiences.
From here, researchers will further investigate and elaborate on the various types of capital these men relied on to ensure their voices are heard and their stories are told.
Analyzing John and Lucas’s transcripts has made me realize that just because I have not had the same experience with racism does not mean it does not exist nor does the affect of racism on individuals and society not exist.